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5 Ways Female Genital Mutilation Is Performed

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Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. UNICEF estimated in Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA Joint Statement classified female genital mutilation into four types. Experience with using this classification over. Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending.

Mothers in headscarves and bright lipstick chat and eat coconut cakes. Javanese music thumps from an assembly hall. There are people crammed into the primary school's ground floor. It's hot, noisy and chaotic, and almost everyone is smiling. Twelve-year-old Suminah is not.

She looks like she wants to punch somebody. Under her white hijab, which she has yanked down over her brow like a hoodie, her eyes have the livid, bewildered expression of a child who has been wronged by people she trusted. She sits on a plastic chair, swatting away her mother's efforts to placate her with a party cup of milk and a biscuit.

Suminah is in severe pain. An hour earlier, her genitals were mutilated with scissors as she lay on a school desk. During the morning, Indonesian girls undergo the same ordeal. Suminah is the oldest, the youngest is just five months. It is April and the occasion is a mass ceremony to perform link perempuan or "female circumcision" that has been held annually since by the Bandung-based Yayasan Assalaaman Islamic foundation that runs a mosque and several schools.

It is well established that female genital mutilation FGM is not required in Muslim law. It is an ancient cultural practice that existed before Islam, Christianity and Judaism. It is also agreed across large swathes of the world that it is barbaric. At the mass ceremony, I ask the foundation's social welfare secretary, Lukman Hakim, why they do it. His answer not only predates the dawn of religion, it predates human evolution: I have not written about What Is Removed During Female Circumcision mass ceremony until now.

I went there with an Indonesian activist organisation that worked within communities to eradicate FGM. Their job was difficult and highly sensitive. Afterwards, in fraught What Is Removed During Female Circumcision with the organisation's staff, it emerged that it was impossible for me to write a journalistic account of the event for the western media without compromising their efforts.

It would destroy the trust they had forged with local leaders, the activists argued, and jeopardise their access to the people they needed to reach. I shelved my article; to sabotage the people working on the ground to stop the abuse would defeat the purpose of whatever I wrote. Such is the tricky partnership of journalism and activism at times.

Yet far from scaling down, the problem of FGM in Indonesia has escalated sharply.

The mass ceremonies in Bandung have grown bigger and more popular every year. Go here year, the gathering took place in February. Hundreds of girls were cut. The Assalaam foundation's website described it as "a celebration".

Anti-FGM campaigners have proved ineffective against a rising tide of conservatism. Today, the issue is more that I can't not write about that day. By geopolitical standards, modern Indonesia is an Asian superstar. The world's fourth-largest country and most populous Muslim nation million people, it is beloved by foreign investors for its buoyant economy and stable democracy.

Last month, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono visited London to receive an honorary knighthood from the Queen in recognition of Indonesia's "remarkable transformation". Yet, as befitting an archipelago of 17, islands, it's a complicated place, too. Corruption and superstition often rule by stealth. Abortion is illegal, and hardline edicts controlling what women wear and do are steadily creeping into local by-laws.

The literature focuses on the sequelae of severe forms especially infibulation link, and we shall concentrate on this information. United Nations Children's Fund, July Seen from a human rights perspective, the practice reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. FGM is not invariably a rite of passage between childhood and adulthood, but is often performed on much younger children. A study in Ghana found that in four percent said they had not undergone FGM, but in said they had, while 11 percent switched in the other direction.

Although Indonesia is not a country where FGM is reported, the practice is endemic. In latea breakthrough towards ending FGM in Indonesia occurred when the Ministry of Health banned doctors from performing it on the grounds that it was "potentially harmful". The authorities, however, did not enforce the ruling.

Born a girl in the wrong place

Hospitals continued to offer sunat perempuan for baby girls, often as part of discount birth packages that also included vaccinations and ear piercing. In the countryside, it was performed mainly by traditional midwives — women thought to have shamanic healing skills known as dukun — as it had been for centuries.

Last year, the situation regressed further. In earlyIndonesia's parliament effectively reversed the ban on FGM by approving guidelines for trained doctors on how to perform source.

Women may fear the pain of defibulation, or the possible discovery by their husbands that there was an accidental disruption of the circumcision, which could result in social humiliation and familial disgrace. Aid agencies define the prevalence of FGM as the percentage of the 15—49 age group that has exerienced it. Who is at risk? In earlyIndonesia's parliament effectively reversed the ban on FGM by approving guidelines for trained doctors on how to perform it.

What Is Removed During Female Circumcision rationale was that, since the ban had failed, issuing guidelines would "safeguard the female reproductive system", officials said. Indonesia's largest Muslim organisation, the Nahdlatul Ulamaalso issued an edict telling its 30 million followers that it approved of female genital cutting, but that doctors "should not cut too much".

It is impossible to second-guess what kind of place holds mass ceremonies to mutilate girl children, with the aim of forever curbing their sexual pleasure. Bandung is Indonesia's third largest city, km east of the capital Jakarta. I had been there twice before my visit in It was like any provincial hub in booming southeast Asia: Cheap jeans and T-shirts spilled out of shops. On the roof of a factory outlet there was a giant click of Spider-Man doing the splits.

Bandung's rampant commercialism had also reinvigorated its moral extremists. While most of Indonesia's million Muslims are moderate, the fall of the Suharto regime had seen the resurgence of radical strains of Islam. Local clerics were condemning click city's "western-style spiritual pollution".

The stricter moral climate had a devastating effect on efforts to eradicate FGM. The Qur'an does not mention the practice, and it is outlawed in most Islamic countries.

Yet leading Indonesian clerics were growing ever more insistent that it was a sacred duty. A week before I attended the Assalaam foundation's khitanan massal or mass circumcision ceremony, the see more of the Majelis Ulama Indonesiathe nation's most powerful council of Islamic leaders, issued this statement: It was early, before 8am, when we arrived at a school painted hospital green in a Bandung suburb on the day of the ceremony.

Women and girls clad in long tunics were lining up outside to register. It was a female-only affair men and boys had their own circumcision link upstairsand the mood was relaxed and sisterly. From their sun-lined faces and battered sandals, some of the mothers looked quite poor — poor enough, possibly, to make the foundation's 80, rupiah cash handout as much of an enticement as the promise of spiritual purity.

Inside, I was greeted by Hdjella, 57, a teacher and midwife who would supervise the cutting. She was wearing a pink floral apron with a frilly pocket.

What Is Removed During Female Circumcision

She had been a traditional midwife for 32 years, she said, although, like most dukun, she had no formal training. Hdjella insisted that the form of FGM just click for source practised is "helpful to girls' health".

She explained that they clean the genitals and then use sterilised scissors to cut off part of the hood, or prepuce, and the tip of the clitoris. FGM in Indonesia is laden with superstition and confusion. A common myth is that it is largely "symbolic", involving no here damage.

A study published in by Yarsi University in Jakarta found this is true only rarely, in a few animist communities where the ritual involves rubbing the clitoris with turmeric or bamboo. Hdjella took me to the classroom where the cutting would soon begin.

The curtains were closed. Desks had been covered in sheets and towels to form about eight beds. Around each one, three middle-aged women wearing headscarves waited in readiness. Their faces were lit from underneath by cheap desk lamps, giving them a What Is Removed During Female Circumcision glow.

There were children's drawings and multiplication tables on the walls. The room filled up with noise and people. Girls started to cry and protest as soon as their mothers hustled them inside. Rapidly, the mood turned business-like. As children were hoisted on to desks I realised with a jolt: Hdjella led me to a four-year-old girl who was lying down. As the girl squirmed, two midwives put their faces close to hers.

What Is Removed During Female Circumcision

They smiled at her, making soft noises, but their hands took an arm and a leg each in a claw-like grip. There is not much blood. In the dingy, crowded room, her cries merged with the sobs and screeches of other girls lying on desks, the grating sing-song clucking of the midwives, the surreally casual conversational hum of waiting mothers.

There was no air. Outside in the courtyard, the festive atmosphere grew as girls and their mothers emerged from the classroom. There were snacks and music, and later, prayers. Ety, 40, was elated.

What is FGM? Everything you need to know about female genital mutilation

She had brought her two daughters, aged seven and three, to be cut. Being circumcised will bring them good luck," she said. Ety was a farmer who came from a village outside Bandung. Neng Apip, 28, was smiling radiantly. She said she was happy her newly cut daughter Rima would now grow up into "a good Muslim girl".

Rima, whose enormous brown eyes were oozing tears, was nine months old.

WHO | Classification of female genital mutilation

Apip kissed her and gave her a rice cracker to suck. Tradition is usually about remembering.